The Concept of Dayak Leadership Particulary in Central Kalimantan
Dayak tribe is very obedient and faithful to the leader that they already know. In the other hand, to get the recognition of its people, the leader should give guidance and know his community very well. The leader of Dayak tribe is not only the person who gives order or receives extra service of its people; on the contrary, the respected leader is the leader who is able to be close and to understand of its community. One of others, the leader should do followings :
• Mamut Menteng, it means bravery in attitude and action. One is respected not for words one says, but for the action one does. Dare to take action, dare to be responsible of it. In attitude and action, always be just. The words uttered are true and useful. The reputation and soul will be at stake for being pro to one’s people. The mamut menteng attitude accompanied with the willingness for isen mulang or never give up spirit has become the flesh and blood in the life of the Dayaks. It’s undeniable that the fact occurs due to the proximity of the Dayak with the nature. For them, the earth is mother, the sky is father and the wind is the breath of life. Thus, wherever one goes, wherever one exists, if the foot has set steps on the ground, the fear and tremble will never be the part of the Dayak. One of the examples of the mamut menteng attitude and alignments of Dayak leader to member of tribe can be seen clearly in the story of woman war commander named Nyai Undang. As her pride was harassed by an arbitrary attitude of a rich man from the other island, she managed to coordinate the force of the tribe’s pangkalima1 famously known with their capability. Not only being able to do the coordination, but she was also able to contact and to lobby in a short period of time. In no time, the invited pangkalima(1) came and assembled in the island of Kupang. The mean of communication used was the Sarana Lunjo Buno or Ranying Pandereh Bunu or Renteng Nanggalung Bulau, a spear with betel chalk on its blade. Lunju Bunu is totok bakakak. Totok bakakak means sign or code or sign language commonly understood by the Dayak community. In the sign language, sending lunjo buno means requesting aid because of the incoming attack. The <em>bunu</em> spear was sent to all directions inviting the war commanders to come immediately to the designated place. in fact Nyai Undang had her beloved one. Because of her very famous beauty, she was proposed with astonishing dowry by a very rich man. The proposal was accompanied by a threat that the refusal would lead to the unavoidable war. In brief, the war exploded in the island of Kupang, the city of Pamatang Sawang(2) located currently in the region of Central Kalimantan. Nyai Undang’s troops supported by the reliable war commanders succeeded in winning the battle. For the alignments to member of tribe, with sincere heart the leaders and war commanders were ready to join in the battle responding to the invitation of a member of tribe who felt harassed. The leader having the spirit of mamut menteng is ready to give in its life for the guidance and alignments to one’s own people. They are not afraid of being laughed at, also not fearful of betrayal since they themselves have no slightest intention to betray one’s people. All are done with sincerity and devoutness that kelecakan or the vanity will shatter in pieces.
• Harati means clever. Besides being clever, one is also a smart person in a positive meaning. The smartness enables oneself to be the greatest aspirator for the people. The capability to communicate with the community, the non made-up closeness makes a Dayak leader has a strong sensitivity. This sensitivity means that before an event happens, one detected in advance all possibilities that might occur in one’s neighborhood. Able to know what’s right and what’s wrong. For example: a Dayak leader in the busy schedule, always makes maja time or visiting member of community’s house with in without pretention closeness. It means that they do not pretend to be intimate, but maja or the visit is something that they love to do. Sometimes the unprecedented visit is along with the meal request to the family. The act will get the family in surprise but left a good memory to the family visited.
• Bakena means handsome/beautiful, attractive and wise. In broader meaning, it means the inner beauty, the beauty reflected from the inner soul. The light of the eyes shows the justice, protection, security, safeness and dedication. Wherever the leader is, he/she is always the favorite and respected. All of these will come naturally if the task and responsibility is performed with sincere heart and without thinking of the profit.
• Bahadat means having attitude. Not only understand and comprehend the Customary Law, but it should be seen in daily deeds. Ranying Hatalla takes part in monitoring all acts that leaders do, that’s why the self control takes the important role in performing the task and responsibility. Dare to do the injustice; the consequence is the hereafter punishment after death.
• Bakaji means having a high level of spiritual knowledge. The leader always tries to find the silence, clean and purify the soul routinely and periodically. The silence time is the most appropriate time to do self dialog, to organize the behavior as to hold on to the goal and not to be easily carried over. Steady as kilau sanaman means as steady as the iron.
• Barendeng means able to hear information and grievances of people. The ear is always open for anyone. It doesn’t mean that the Dayak leader only spends time to accept people’s visit and listen to their complaints and do so as hospitality. Without direct meeting with each of its people, Dayak leader knows much on the situation and condition of each family. He/she has prepared the heart and ear to receive and listen then to sensitize them; it’s the part of his task and responsibility. One of the examples in daily life can be witnessed in the tradition of mihup baram, babusau or drink alcoholic drink until drunk. Although being drunk, the Dayak leader always try to control his consciousness so that through the mihup baram until babusau, the leader can capture and record the hidden wound, disappointment and anger of the people (3).
1. War Commander
2. Kota means bastion made of wood eusidexylon zwageri ( Latin ), can also be made of stone.
3. Nowaday, times have changed. Babusau tradition as a means of recording the contents of people’s hearts should be abandoned because too much risk. What is written here simply as a story of the past.